John Suler's The Psychology of Cyberspace
Listed below is a list of links to all the articles and pages in the hypertext book (web site) The Psychology of Cyberspace. The articles are arranged chronologically, with the most recently written or revised ones appearing near the top. The most recent date of the article, its version number, and its approximate size are indicated. Unless otherwise stated, the author of the article is John Suler, Ph.D. There also is a subject index for this book. Links on this page will produce a new window placed on top of this window.
Online Photo-Sharing Communities: Personal Identity and Relationships in Flickr
Created Jan 2008
How people use images, words, and actions to express themselves and establish relationships in flickr, one of the largest online photosharing communities.
Online Therapy and Support Groups
Created May 1996; revised August 1998, August 2007
Therapy and support groups are springing up all over the internet. Some are led by professionals, some are grass roots. Online communities also may have therapeutic qualities. This article discusses how such groups are affected by the online disinhibition effect, as well as observations from people who participate in online support groups as a component of the eQuest psycho-educational program.
Second Life, Second Chance
Created Jan 2007
A description of my first impressions while exploring this popular avatar world.
The Psychology of Text Relationships
Created Jan 2007
A comprehensive synthesis of my ideas about online text relationships, with a focus on applications to online psychotherapy and clinical work. An earlier version of this article was published as Suler, J. (2004) The psychology of text relationships. In Online Counseling: A Manual for Mental Health Professionals (R. Kraus, J. Zack, & G. Striker, Eds). London: Elsevier Academic Press.
The First Decade of CyberPsychology
Created Aug 2006
My observations about cyberspace and cyberpsychology on the 10th anniversary of this book.
Created Sept 2005
This article examines the psychological aspects of making transitions from one computer program or computer-generated environment to another. What motivates people to try something new? What underlying anxieties and rigid "mental sets" hinder them? I also offer suggestions for making media transitions and insights into the behaviors of tech support workers.
The Basic Psychological Features of Cyberspace
Created May 1996; revised July 98, Jan 2002, June 05
These features can make online encounters very different than those in the "real" world: reduced sensations, texting, identity flexibility, altered perceptions, equalized status, transcended space, temporal flexibility, social multiplicity, recordability, media disruption . This revision mentions current communication technologies and emphasizes these psychological features as elements of a conceptual model for a psychology of cyberspace.
Adolescents in Cyberspace: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Created June 1998, Revised Feb 2005
Knowing what makes adolescents tick helps explain what they are doing in cyberspace, and why. A need to achieve, to belong, to experiment with social skills and personal identity - all motivate the cyberteen. Given the dangers and benefits, how should parents be involved - especially if the adolescent becomes "addicted?" This revision of the article includes discussions of adolescents using blogs and IM.
The Final Showdown Between In-Person and Cyberspace Relationships
Created May 1997, revised Sept 04
We develop relationships by hearing, seeing, feeling, intuiting, even smelling and tasting (!) each other. Cyberspace and in-person encounters can be quite different on these dimensions of relating. Those differences have a dramatic effect on friendships and romances. This revision includes minor modifications throughout the article, as well as a new section on defending text and the body.
The Online Disinhibition Effect
Created June 2001; revised June 2002, June 2003, May 2004, Aug 2004
While online some people open up to reveal all sorts of personal feelings and thoughts. Others act out inappropriately in ways they never would in-person. This article explains six factors that contribute to this "disinhibition" effect: dissociative anonymity, invisibility, asynchronicity, solipsistic introjection, dissociative imagination, and minimizing authority, as well as how online disinhibition and suspicion are related to the altering of self-boundary. This revision includes a section about whether the "true self" appears online as a result of disinhibition. An earlier version of this article was published as: Suler, J.R. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7, 321-326.
Psychotherapy in Cyberspace: A 5-Dimension Model of Online and Computer-Mediated Psychotherapy
Created May 1999; revised August 2000, Jan 2001, March 2004
In this article I propose a 5 dimension model of psychotherapies conducted in cyberspace. The 5 dimensional features used to understand psychotherapies are synchronous/asynchronous, text/sensory, imaginary/actual, automated/interpersonal, and invisible/present. This revision of the article discusses newer communication technologies and the participation of clinicians in the design of communication tools. An earlier version of this article was published as: Suler, J.R. (2000). Psychotherapy in cyberspace: A 5-dimension model of online and computer-mediated psychotherapy. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 3, 151-160.
The Future of Online Psychotherapy and Clinical Work
Created Aug 2001; revised March 2004
What lies ahead? In this article I look into my crystal ball and see some important issues surfacing, including specialization, interdisciplinary teams, clinical networks, empowering of the client, automated interventions, and a meta-theory of cybertherapy. This revision of the article mentions newer communication technologies and the participation of clinicians in the design of communication tools. Other versions of this paper were presented at the 2001 Conference of the American Psychological Association; and published as: Suler, J.R. (2002). The future of online clinical work. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 4, 265-270.
Personality Types in Cyberspace
Created August 1998; revised Jan 2002 & Feb 2004
Different personality types may have their own unique style of behaving in cyberspace. This article recommends McWilliam's psychoanalytic work on personality types as a guideline for understanding the "person" side of the person/environment interaction. This revision includes a discussion of the oppositional personality.
The Two Paths of Virtual Reality
Created Sept 99; revised Feb 2004
Computer generated environments include true-to-life scenes, as well as highly imaginative scenarios. In the years to come, how will we use these virtual realities? In this article, I speculate about the "body immersion" and "brain stimulated" environments of future VR technology. Perhaps we will even use this technology to understand what "reality" is. This revision of the original 1999 article includes small changes and additions throughout.
Publishing Online: Idea Independence, Interdependence, and the Academic
Created Sept 1998; revised Aug 1999, Oct 2003
Publishing online offers some interesting advantages over hardcopy: hypertext construction, multimedia, interactivity, limitless revivability, and personal independence. Academia needs to develop new methods for evaluating the quality of online publications. This revision includes tune-ups throughout the article, including the addition of ideas about weblogs and RSS, as well as a discussion of the durability of online publications. A hardcopy version of this article appeared as: Suler, J. (1999). Publishing Online. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1, 373-376.
Presence in Cyberspace
How do we know we are present in a particular place in cyberspace? How do we know others are present? This article examines the factors contributing to our sense of environmental and interpersonal presence - including sensory stimulation, change, interactivity, and the degree of familiarity.
E-mail Communication and Relationships
Created August 1998; revised June 2003
This comprehensive article examines the unique communication features of e-mail, types of e-mail users, the anatomy of an e-mail message, pacing of messages, e-mail archives, an e-mail make-over, and how relationships evolve via e-mail, including transference reactions and meeting f2f. This is a revision of the original version of the article, and includes new sections on rich text, multimedia enhancements, and e-mail stress, as well as small revisions throughout. A version of this article for clinicians was published as Suler, J.R. (2004). The psychology of text relationships. In: Kraus, R., Zack, J., Stricker, G. (eds.), Online counseling: a handbook for mental health professionals, pp 19-50. London: Elsevier Academic Press.
Extending the Classroom into Cyberspace: The Discussion Board
This article discusses the use a discussion board as a supplement to in-person teaching, including how to motivate students to use it, setting rules for participation, techniques for facilitating discussion, the disinhibition effect, and how text communication creates a unique environment that can be effectively integrated into the class. A hardcopy version of this article was published as: Suler, J.R. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7, 397-403.
Defending the In-Box: The Psychology of Coping with Spam
Spam e-mail violates our personal space. Defending our in-box against these unwanted messages turns into a psychological duel with the spammer. We can create software filters to block them out, or weed them out by hand. As we scan through the messages in our in-box, can we detect the spammers' attempts to trick us into opening them?
eQuest: A Comprehensive Online Program for Self-study and Personal Growth
eQuest is a comprehensive program of exercises and online activities that assists people in addressing some personal issue that they wish to understand better and perhaps resolve. The eQuest philosophy holds that exploring online resources - and developing an online lifestyle - can enhance personal growth. A version of this article was presented as: Suler, J.R. (2002). eQuest: A Comprehensive Online Program for Self-study and Personal Growth. Conference of the American Psychological Association, Chicago.
Myths and Realities of Online Clinical Work
This article by the ISMHO Clinical Case Study Group explores various misconceptions or "myths" about online counseling, psychotherapy, and other types of clinical work. Hardcopy version: Fenichel, M., Suler, J., Azy Barak, Zelvin, E., Jones, G., Munro, K., Meunier, V., & Walker-Schmucker, W. (2002). Myths and Realities of Online Clinical Work. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 481-497.
Conflict in Cyberspace: How to Resolve Conflict Online
This article by Kali Munro explains some of the causes of conflict in cyberspace and offers some excellent practical advice about how to resolve such conflicts.
The Online Clinical Case Study Group: An E-mail Model
Online peer supervision and case study groups are an effective method for clinicians to share experiences and support each other in their work. This article describes some theoretical and practical ideas about how to set up and manage such a group using an e-mail list. Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (2001). The online clinical case study group: An e-mail model. CyberPsychology and Behavior,4, 711-722.
Assessing a Person's Suitability for Online Psychotherapy
These guidelines created by the ISMHO Clinical Case Study Group discuss basic issues to consider in determining whether a person could benefit from online psychotherapy. Hardcopy version: The ISMHO Clinical Case Study Group (2001). Assessing a person's suitability for online therapy. CyberPsychology and Behavior,4, 675-680.
Hypotheses about Online Text Relationships
A list of hypotheses about how and why people communicate via email, chat, and discussion boards using typed text. A version of this article was presented as: Suler, J.R. (2000). Online relationships via text talk. Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers, Lawrence, Kansas.
Psychotherapy and Clinical Work in Cyberspace
This page is the introduction and table of contents for the section devoted to psychotherapy and clinical work in cyberspace. It also contains a short introductory essay about the ethical, legal, and practical dilemmas about psychotherapy in cyberspace. Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (2001). Psychotherapy and clinical work in cyberspace. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 3, 483-486.
Maximizing the Well-Being of Online Groups: The Clinical Psychologist in Virtual Communities
My professional work in cyberspace has mostly involved creating, facilitating, and consulting to various online groups and communities. I consider this work to be a type of online clinical/community psychology. In this article I describe the types of situations that come up in this work. I also offer my Top Ten List of issues to consider when working with online groups. A version of this article was presented as: Suler, J.R. (2000). The Clinical Psychologist in Online Communities. Convention of the New York State Psychological Association, New York.
Report of the ISMHO Online Clinical Case Study Group
One of the groups I created and facilitate, along with my colleague Michael Fenichel, is this case study group of the International Society for Mental Health Online. The group is devoted to in-depth discussions of psychotherapy and clinical cases in which the internet played an important role. This report summarizes the process and outcome for the first year of this group - what we called the "Millennium Group." A version of this article was presented as: Suler, J.R. (2000). An online clinical case study group. Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Working Hypotheses about Psychotherapy and Clinical Work in Cyberspace
This document lists the hypotheses about psychotherapy and clinical work in cyberspace that are being formulated by the ISMHO Clinical Case Study Group. Covering a wide range of theoretical ideas and techniques, it serves as the basis for an evolving, practical model to guide our understanding of how and for whom the various forms of online interventions can be applied most effectively.
Identity Management in Cyberspace
Created May 1996; revised April 2000
In cyberspace you can alter your style of being just slightly or indulge in wild experiments with your identity. This article examines five factors that determine how people manage their online identities: level of dissociation and integration, positive and negative valence, level of fantasy and reality, level of conscious awareness and control, and the media chosen. Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (2002). Identity Management in Cyberspace. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 4, 455-460.
In the Cyberspace Bubble: Full Immersion and f2f Isolation
What would happen if a person was locked into an apartment for an extended period of time, with no way of interacting with the world except via the internet? This article examines a possible research design for studying this full cyberspace immersion and f2f isolation.
Ethics in Cyberspace Research
This article applies the Ethical Standards of the American Psychological Association to research in cyberspace. Because cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial, and sensory components of human interaction, it requires a unique interpretation of such standards - particularly in the case of naturalistic studies. Informed consent, the right to privacy, and the researcher's contribution to the people being studied are all important issues.
Bringing Online and Offline Living Together: The Integration Principle
Integrating one's online identity and lifestyle with one's offline identity and lifestyle can lead to psychological growth. In this article, I discuss this "integration principle" and ways to bring one's in-person and cyberspace worlds together.
Extending a Work Group into Cyberspace
This article discusses how an in-person work group can be extended into cyberspace by creating an e-mail list for the group. It explores some practical suggestions for setting up the list, the benefits of an ongoing virtual meeting, and how using the list will change the communication style and interpersonal dynamics of the group.
Human Becomes Electric: Networks as Mind and Self
Created May 1996; revised Feb 1999, Jan 2000
The internet resembles the human mind and collective human consciousness. Perhaps it is an independent mind or self! Where do we drawn the line between human and machine? Can we discover the True Self in cyberspace?
Intensive Case Studies in Cyberspace and the Evolution of Digital Life Forms
Created May 1996; revised Jan 2000
In-depth case studies can lead to a comprehensive, holistic understanding of the new life forms that are evolving in cyberspace. Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (2000). Case studies and the evolution of digital life forms. CyberPsychology and Behavior,3, 219-220.
A sample of cartoons and jokes about cyberspace. Is it just silly fun, or does this humor reveal something about our culture as well as our underlying anxieties about computers and the internet?
Internet Addiction in a Nutshell
For an article he was writing, Howard Rheingold asked about my opinion on the media's coverage of internet addiction. Making my reply as concise as possible, which he requested, was an intriguing challenge. Unfortunately, the editorial process of the zine trimmed my statement to something much more concise than I intended.
Can a computer conduct psychotherapy all by itself? In this article I compare the human therapist to the cybershrink, hypothesize about the types of psychotherapy a computer might be able to handle, and describe the results of a project in which my students interacted with the "Eliza" program. The finale is my speculation about the modules that might go into the ultimate computerized psychotherapy program.
One of Us: Participant Observation Research at the Palace
Created August 1996; revised July 1999
I firmly believe in participant-observation research as a method to understand a cyberspace social phenomenon "from the inside." This article gives a detailed account of the stages and techniques involved in my work/play within the Palace multimedia chat community.
This article discusses the possibility of an "avatar psychotherapy" in which the client and therapist enact imaginary scenarios with avatars in a virtual environment for the purpose of exploring and altering the various aspects of the client's sense of self.
Internet Demographics 1998
Created May 1999; revised May 2005
Some statistics about the gender, age, education, income, race, and geographic location of people on the internet. What do those statistics say about cyberspace?
Cyberspace as Dream World: Illusion and Reality at the "Palace"
Created July 96; revised April 1999
The experience of the Palace multimedia chat community in many respects resembles a dreamlike state of consciousness. This article also explores the meanings of dreams that members have about Palace.
Do Boys Just Wanna Have Fun?: Gender-Switching in Cyberspace
Created May 96; revised May 1997, Feb 1999, April 1999
Why do people switch their gender in cyberspace? Is it possible to detect someone who is faking his gender? Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (in press). Do boys and girls just wanna have fun? In Gender Communication (by A. Kunkel). Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
The Psychology of Avatars and Graphical Space in Multimedia Chat Communities
(or... How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love My Palace Props)
Created May 1996; revised June 1996, Jan 1997, July 1997, Feb 1999, April 1999
A comprehensive study of visual chat environments - how people use avatars to express themselves and interact with others, types of avatars, avatar collections, deviant avatar behavior, avatar evolution, and the psychological effect of graphical backgrounds. Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (2001). The psychology of avatars and graphical space in multimedia chat communities. In Chat Communication, Michael Beiswenger (ed.), pp. 305-344. Ibidem, Stuttgart, Germany.
Overview and Guided Tour
First created March 1999 - revised with each new article
An overview of The Psychology of Cyberspace, with links to all of the articles in the book.
To Get What You Need: Healthy and Pathological Internet Use
An analysis of the factors for evaluating healthy versus pathological internet use, and the various psychological needs addressed by cyberspace (needs for sex, belonging, relationships, mastery and achievement, altered consciousness, self-actualization, transcendence). Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. (1999) To get what you need: Healthy and pathological internet use. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 2, 385-394.
Cyberspace as a Psychological Space
Created May 1996; revised Aug 1998, March 1999
People experience cyberspace realms as psychological spaces with meaning and purpose, as an intermediate psychological zone between self and other, and even as an extension of their own minds.
Computer and Cyberspace Addiction
Created Aug 1996; revised Aug 1998, March 1999
A discussion of the controversy over whether computer and cyberspace addictions are unique or "true" addictions, the possible criteria for defining such addictions, and the "integration principle" for evaluating pathological internet use. Hardcopy version: Suler, J. (2004). Computer and cyberspace addiction. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1, 359-362.
Internet Addiction Support Group: Is There Truth in Jest?
Created August 1996; revised March 1998
Ivan Goldberg's criteria for defining pathological computer use and his announcement of a support group.... which he intended as a joke.
Nacey's Avatar Collection
This is a subsection of the long article on the psychology of avatars and graphical space. Here Nacey shows and explains to us a few of the avatars from her personal collection.
Y2K: Apocalyptic Thinking and the Tragic Flaw
Anxiety about the Y2K bug fuels some social movements as well as the personal insecurities of some individuals. It stems from fears about the unknown, interdependence, helplessness, and death - and reminds us of the tragic flaw that is human fallacy.
The Geezer Brigade: Steps in Studying an Online Group
A study of The Geezer Brigade - a group of online seniors who prefer to think of themselves as feisty codgers rather than "seniors." The article also explores the various steps in studying an online group, including the analysis of its leaders, membership, philosophy, history, and communication infrastructure.
Unique Groups in Cyberspace
Created May 1996; revised January 1999
A short ditty about how cyberspace offers the opportunity for unique groups to form - some good, some not.
Online Lingo: Language at "The Palace"
Created May 1996; revised Jan 1997, Jan 1999
Online groups develop their own vocabulary that makes communication more efficient and bolsters the group's sense of identity. This article defines some of the words commonly found in the Palace chat communities.
Making Virtual Communities Work
Created January 1996; revised October 1998
Some technical and social guidelines to follow in order to create an online community that will thrive. Most important is the "integration principle."
Mom, Dad, Computer: Transference Reactions to Computers
Created May 1996; revised March 1998
People may not even realize it, but they may be reacting to their computer as if it is their mother, father, or sibling. This article explores the various twists and turns in people's transference reactions to computers and cyberspace.
Games Avatars Play: Entertaining and Educational Games Using Avatars
Avatars are the visual images people use to represent themselves in multimedia chat communities. Some of these games are purely fun. Others are excellent tools for exploring personal identity and online relationships.
A simple decision-making method for e-mail groups
Ever been on a mailing list that was trying to make a decision about something? Then you may appreciate this structured method for discussing and voting on an issue.
TextTalk: Psychological Dynamics of Online Synchronous Conversations
in Text-Driven Chat Environments
The text-only conversation of chat rooms seems chaotic at first. Later, you realize there is a unique method to the madness of "text talk." It is an art form.
The Bad Boys of Cyberspace: Deviant Behavior in
Online Multimedia Communities and Strategies for Managing it
The anonymity of cyberspace unleashes all sorts of misbehavior in people, ranging from inappropriate language to pedophilia. This long article explains the cultural and psychological dimensions of online deviance, catalogs the various types of deviant behavior in the Palace multimedia chat community, and discusses the various automated and interpersonal techniques for managing the misbehavior. Hardcopy version: Suler, J.R. and Phillips, W. (1998). The Bad Boys of Cyberspace: Deviant Behavior in Multimedia Chat Communities. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 1, 275-294.
From ASCII to Holodecks: Cyberpsychology of an Online Multimedia Community
(summary of the Palace Study)
If you want a quick and concise summary of my research on the Palace chat community, this is it. A version of this article was presented as: Suler, J.R. (1997). From ASCII to Holodecks: Psychology of an Online Multimedia Community. Presentation at the Convention of the American Psychological Association, Chicago.
Legnek's Avatar Collection
This is a subsection of the long article on the psychology of avatars and graphical space. Here Legnek shows and explains to us a few of the avatars from his personal collection.
The Black Hole of Cyberspace
The internet is supposed to respond to us. But sometimes it doesn't. When we receive no reply (especially to an e-mail message), that black hole can draw out of us all sorts of anxieties and insecurities.
How many mail list subscribers does it take to change a light bulb? (author unknown)
If you've ever participated on an e-mail list that was trying to reach a decision about something, you'll appreciate this humorous piece.
The Other Worlds (how Palace compares to other chat communities)
The Palace multimedia chat community is one among many major online communities. In this article, experienced users compare the Palace software and people to those of other worlds. One person focuses on deviant behavior in Worlds Away.
Cold Turkey: Messages from an Ex-Palace "Addict"
Many members of the Palace chat community talk and joke about being "addicted." A few members take the issue seriously and decide that it's time to "quit the habit." In these e-mails I received, one such member describes why and how he stopped cold turkey.
Knowledge, Power, Wisdom... and your very own asterisk:
Wizards at the "Palace"
Wizards are the members of the Palace chat community who host, educate, and police the population. This article describes what it's like being a wizard; their special powers, privileges, and perks; different types of wizards; and how users become wizards.
Communicative Subtlety in Multimedia Chat:
How many ways can you say "Hi" at the Palace?
Very simple keyboard characters and graphics can add much depth and subtlety to the basic act of saying "hello" in a multimedia chat encounter.
From Conception to Toddlerhood:
A History of the First Year (or so) of The Palace
A detailed account of what life was like in the "good old days" of the Palace multimedia chat community called "Main." I describe some important historical moments, including how the once small community grappled with the influx of many new users.
Cyberspace Romances (interview)
In this Interview with Jean-Francois Perreault of Branchez-vous! I talk about the causes, benefits, and pitfalls of cyberspace romances.
Internet Addiction (interview)
In this Interview with Morris Jones of Internet Australasia magazine , I respond to his questions about my article on Computer and Cyberspace Addictions.
Why is This Thing Eating My Life?
(Computer and Cyberspace Addiction at the "Palace")
Created May 1996; revised June & Aug 1996
This article - the first cyberspace piece I wrote - applies Maslow"s hierarchy of needs in understanding why people become so enthusiastically involved in the Palace multimedia chat community.
On Being a God: An Interview with Jim Bumgardner
In my e-mail interview with Jim, he describes the early stages of his developing the Palace multimedia chat software and his impressions of the pioneering community that evolved when Palace first went online.
That's Me All Over: An Analysis of a Personal Avatar Collection
In the spirit of participant-observer research, I analyze my own collection of avatars that I have worn in the Palace multimedia chat community.
Unique Roles in Cyberspace
Cyberspace allows people to pursue roles that may not exist in the "real" world.
Transient and Long Term Online Relationships
The interactive power of the internet gives everyone an opportunity to meet people - sometimes in transient encounters, sometimes in long term friendships and romances.
Transference Among People Online
A short description of how people"s past relationships lead them to misperceive each other online (transference). See the "Mom, Dad, Computer" article for a more in-depth analysis of transference reactions.
Applying Social-Psychology to Online Groups and Communities
A short piece about how the principles of in-person social psychology can be applied to online groups. However, new theories may need to be developed to explain some of the unique aspects of online behavior.
The Natural Life Cycle of Mailing Lists (by Kat Nagel)
A concise, insightful list of the 6 developmental stages of mailing lists, beginning with "enthusiasm" and ending with (ideally) "maturity."
Internet Addiction Questionnaire
Created May 1996; revised April 1999
An internet addiction questionnaire created by two German students that was posted to the Psychology of the Internet mailing list in July 1996. It"s a good example of how researchers are tackling this controversial issue.
A Comparison of Online, E-Mail, and In-Person Self-Help Groups
Using Adult Children of Alcoholics as a Model (by Wende Phillips)
One of my former students describes her research project on online ACOA groups. She talks about some of the basic communication features of chat and e-mail support groups, and compares these online groups to in-person groups.
The Internet Regression (by Norman Holland)
This is one of the earliest articles to be written about how the anonymity of cyberspace invites people to regress - usually by becoming hostile or extremely benevolent. Holland also explores the various sexual and parental fantasies that computers stir up in their users.
Review of "The Internet Regression"
My two cents on Norman Holland"s intriguing article "The Internet Regression."
Other Pages in The Psychology of Cyberspace:
The Psychology of Cyberspace Home Page (table of contents)
Life at the Palace: A Cyberpsychology Case Study
(table of contents for the Palace Study subsection)
Comments from Readers
Search Engine for The Psychology of Cyberspace
The Psychology of Cyberspace Home Page